Some of Silicon Valley’s most successful app designers are alumni of the Persuasive Technology Lab at Stanford, ... founded in 1998 by B.J. Fogg, whose graduate work “used methods from experimental psychology to demonstrate that computers can change people’s thoughts and behaviors in predictable ways,” according to the center’s website. ...
Fogg’s behavior model involves building habits through the use of what he calls “hot triggers,” like the links and photos in Facebook’s newsfeed, made up largely of posts by one’s Facebook friends.
One of Fogg’s students, Nir Eyal, offers a practical guide in his book Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products. A former game designer and professor of “applied consumer psychology” at Stanford’s Graduate School of Business, Eyal explains why applications like Facebook are so effective. A successful app, he writes, creates a “persistent routine” or behavioral loop. The app both triggers a need and provides the momentary solution to it. “Feelings of boredom, loneliness, frustration, confusion, and indecisiveness often instigate a slight pain or irritation and prompt an almost instantaneous and often mindless action to quell the negative sensation,” he writes. “Gradually, these bonds cement into a habit as users turn to your product when experiencing certain internal triggers.” ...
On Facebook, one asserts one’s social status and quantifies its increase through numbers of likes, comments, and friends. According to Eyal, checking in delivers a hit of dopamine to the brain, along with the craving for another hit. The designers are applying basic slot machine psychology. The variability of the “reward”—what you get when you check in—is crucial to the enthrallment. ...
Facebook’s 2012 acquisition of Instagram, a startup with thirteen employees, for the bargain price of $1 billion, “demonstrates the increasing power of—and immense monetary value created by—habit-forming technology.” In other words, Instagram was so damned addictive that Facebook had to have it. ...
The toll of technology is emotional rather than physical. But the more you read about it, the more you may come to feel that we’re in the middle of a new Opium War, in which marketers have adopted addiction as an explicit commercial strategy. This time the pushers come bearing candy-colored apps. ...
Tech companies are engaged in “a race to the bottom of the brain stem,” in which rewards go not to those that help us spend our time wisely, but to those that keep us mindlessly pulling the lever at the casino. ...
In the last part of his book, Eyal raises ethical considerations and says developers ought to peddle only products that they believe in. But in the main, his book reads like one of those tobacco industry documents about manipulating nicotine levels in cigarettes. ...
As long as software engineers are able to deliver free, addictive products directly to children, parents who are themselves compulsive users have little hope of asserting control.
- Jacob Weisberg, We Are Hopelessly Hooked, NY Review of Books, Feb. 25, 2016 Issue
It appears that much as CNN tried to improve its ratings by following in the footsteps of Fox News, focusing increasingly on producing content entertaining enough to draw a larger audience, the New York Times plans to shift toward producing content that is more entertaining to attract more readers. The Times will increasingly focus not on reporting the most important news, but on "incorporating reader ideas" — in other words, tailoring the product to satisfy the tastes of a mass audience, producing content that large numbers of people will find so enticing that they come back for more, much as the food industry incorporates consumers' preferences, designing foods so as to maximize customers' urge to consume more:
- More than most news organizations, The Times has hitched its future to building a loyal audience that will come back repeatedly and pay for the privilege of doing so. ...The Times hopes to make its content sufficiently unique and addictive that it turns frequent visitors into subscribers. ...
- In May, Dean Baquet, the executive editor, told the staff that the way The Times tells stories would be changing. “Fewer stories will be done just ‘for the record,’ ” he said. “In fact, fewer traditional news stories will be done over all. Stories will relax in tone.” ...
- Think of pioneering comedians like Jon Stewart.... He created a whole new genre of delivering the news. His incisive wit and brilliance enabled him to convey, in one entertaining spoof, what reams of reporters missed through more dutiful stories. ...
- ''I don’t worry that The Times will go too far in incorporating reader ideas.... I worry that it won’t go far enough.
- - Liz Spayd, Want to Attract More Readers? Try Listening to Them, NYT, July 9, 2016
- Scientists across the globe have demonstrated that shifting the internet from our computers to our phones has created an epidemic worse than the one created by smoking, albeit attacking our minds instead of our lungs.
- 60 Minutes recently ran a piece showing how Silicon Valley engineers are using what they know about the brain to manipulate us into staying perpetually addicted to our smartphones. Their investigation caught numerous firms red-handed as they used knowledge of brain science to increase the addictive natures of their apps. ...
- It’s a simple fact that the purpose of a company is to generate revenue, and that companies do what they can—often through clever marketing—to make you purchase more of their products. Many of these techniques manipulate our minds....
- - Jeff Stibel, Has the Internet become an Epidemic?, LinkedIn, July 10, 2017Featured in: Millennials, Productivity, Social Media, Technology
- Fogg called for a new field, sitting at the intersection of computer science and psychology, and proposed a name for it: “captology” (Computers as Persuasive Technologies). Captology later became behaviour design, which is now embedded into the invisible operating system of our everyday lives. The emails that induce you to buy right away, the apps and games that rivet your attention, the online forms that nudge you towards one decision over another: all are designed to hack the human brain and capitalise on its instincts, quirks and flaws. The techniques they use are often crude and blatantly manipulative, but they are getting steadily more refined, and, as they do so, less noticeable.
- - IAN LESLIE, THE SCIENTISTS WHO MAKE APPS ADDICTIVE, 1843 MAGAZINE, The Economist, OCTOBER/NOVEMBER 2016
- It's a case study in how designers use technology to create habit-forming products by marrying the principles of consumer psychology with the latest in big data analytics. Indeed, it is just one of many products and services we use habitually that alter our everyday behavior — just as their designers intended.
- How does it work? After years of distilled research and real-world experience, I call it the Hook Model: a four-phase process companies use to form habits. Through consecutive hook cycles — of trigger, action, variable reward, and investment — successful products reach their ultimate goal of unprompted user engagement, bringing users back repeatedly without depending on costly advertising or aggressive messaging. To illustrate this, it's helpful to look at the early days of Gruenewald's Bible app.''
- - Nir Eyal, Nir Eyal: What Makes Some Products Indispensable?, Insights, Stanford Graduate School of Business, April 30, 2014
- Fear that new internet technologies are doing more to waste time and brainpower than to increase productivity has already provoked a backlash in China, where officials recently criticized online gaming as “electronic heroin.”
- - Ruchir Sharma, When Will the Tech Bubble Burst?, NYT, AUG. 5, 2017
- We now know that those iPads, smartphones and Xboxes are a form of digital drug. Recent brain imaging research is showing that they affect the brain’s frontal cortex — which controls executive functioning, including impulse control — in exactly the same way that cocaine does. Technology is so hyper-arousing that it raises dopamine levels — the feel-good neurotransmitter most involved in the addiction dynamic — as much as sex.
- This addictive effect is why Dr. Peter Whybrow, director of neuroscience at UCLA, calls screens “electronic cocaine” and Chinese researchers call them “digital heroin.” ...
- Once a kid has crossed the line into true tech addiction, treatment can be very difficult. Indeed, I have found it easier to treat heroin and crystal meth addicts than lost-in-the-matrix video gamers or Facebook-dependent social media addicts.
- According to a 2013 Policy Statement by the American Academy of Pediatrics, 8- to 10 year-olds spend 8 hours a day with various digital media while teenagers spend 11 hours in front of screens.
- - Dr. Nicholas Kardaras, It’s ‘digital heroin’: How screens turn kids into psychotic junkies, New York Post, August 27, 2016
- The video poker machines that Stephen Paddock liked were the ones that did not draw attention. They had few look-at-me flashing lights or listen-to-me bells.
- He would sit in front of them for hours, often wagering more than $100 a hand. The way he played — instinctually, decisively, calculatingly, silently, with little movement beyond his shifting eyes and nimble fingers — meant he could play several hundred hands an hour. Casino hosts knew him well. ...
- “Video poker is the crack cocaine of gambling,” Mr. Curtis ["a former professional gambler and currently the owner and publisher of Las Vegas Advisor, a website covering the casino business"] said.
- - JOHN BRANCH, SERGE F. KOVALESKI and SABRINA TAVERNISE, Las Vegas Gunman Chased Gambling’s Payouts and Perks, NYT, OCT. 4, 2017
- Alter teaches marketing and psychology at New York University and wants to show us how smartphones, Netflix, and online games such as World of Warcraft are exquisitely and expensively engineered to hook us in. “As a kid I was terrified of drugs,” he writes. “I had a recurring nightmare that someone would force me to take heroin and that I’d become addicted.” It’s unsurprising he’s become a psychologist of addiction, and his intoxicant of choice is the internet. In a chapter subtitled “Never Get High on Your Own Supply” he makes the observation that neither Steve Jobs of Apple nor Evan Williams of Twitter have allowed their children to play with touch screens.
- A couple of years ago a programmer called Kevin Holesh, worried that his own screen time was getting out of control, wrote an app called Moment, which tracks how long a user is interacting with a screen (it doesn’t count time on phone calls). The results were startling, even among those concerned enough to download the app: for 88% it was more than an hour a day, with the average being three hours. The typical user checked their phone 39 times in 24 hours. By comparison, in 2008, before smartphones became widespread, adults spent just 18 minutes a day on their phone. ...
- The middle part of Alter’s book is illuminating on the ways that designers engineer behavioural addiction. ...
- These neuropsychology experiments are well known, but Alter retells them to illustrate how the latest technology traps us in a lab cage of connectivity. For an addict, there’s little opportunity to escape.
- Some will find this shrill and alarmist – new technology has always had its catastrophisers. It may have been that the girl who killed herself would have done so without the public shaming that followed her post; there have always been neglectful parents; my teenage patient might have struggled to concentrate without being woken by his phone. Socrates said that writing would make us all forgetful; Caxton’s printing press destroyed the economy of scribes; television was condemned for vulgarising and trivialising entertainment. Connectivity is here to stay....
- - Gavin Francis, Irresistible: Why We Can’t Stop Checking, Scrolling, Clicking and Watching - review, The Guardian, Sunday 26 February 2017
- Half the developed world is addicted to something, and Alter, a professor at New York University, informs us that, increasingly, that something isn’t drugs or alcohol, but behaviour. Recent studies suggest the most compulsive behaviour we engage in has to do with cyber connectivity; 40% of us have some sort of internet-based addiction – whether it’s checking your email (on average workers check it 36 times an hour), mindlessly scrolling through other people’s breakfasts on Instagram or gambling online.
- Facebook was fun three years ago, Alter warns. Now it’s addictive. This tech zombie epidemic is not entirely our fault. Technology is designed to hook us, and to keep us locked in a refresh/reload cycle....
- - Fatima Bhutto, Irresistible by Adam Alter review – an entertaining look at technology addiction, The Guardian, Friday 21 April 2017
- If you talk to experts in the industry they'll say something like, say, between two and four years from now just as most of us own smartphones, we will pretty much all own these virtual reality goggles. ... What that will mean is that at any moment in time you'll have a device that will allow you to escape the imperfect real world, and you'll be able to go to a perfect virtual world.
- - Fresh Air, 'Irresistible' By Design: It's No Accident You Can't Stop Looking At The Screen, March 13, 2017
- Adam Alter, a professor of psychology and marketing at NYU, is at the cutting edge of research into what makes these products so compulsive, and he documents the hefty price we're likely to pay if we continue blindly down our current path. People have been addicted to substances for thousands of years, but for the past two decades, we've also been hooked on technologies, such as Instagram, Netflix, and Facebook—inventions that we've adopted because we assume they'll make our lives better. These inventions have profound upsides, but their extraordinary appeal isn't an accident. Technology companies and marketers have teams of engineers and researchers devoted to keeping us engaged. They know how to push our buttons, and how to coax us into using their products for hours, days, and weeks on end.
- - ADAM ALTER, Irresistible: The Rise Of Addictive Technology And The Business Of Keeping Us Hooked, NPR Books
- Today, roughly 90 percent of smokers say they regret having started, and about 80 percent express a desire to quit. Some 40 to 50 percent of smokers try to quit each year, but fewer than 5 percent of them succeed.
- - ROBERT H. FRANK, Why Even Tougher Regulations on Smoking Are Justified, NYT, JAN. 5, 2018
- Facebook and Google have become “obstacles to innovation” and are a “menace” to society whose “days are numbered”, said billionaire investor and philanthropist George Soros at the World Economic Forum in Davos on Thursday. ...
- “This is particularly nefarious because social media companies influence how people think and behave without them even being aware of it. This has far-reaching adverse consequences on the functioning of democracy, particularly on the integrity of elections.”
- In addition to skewing democracy, social media companies “deceive their users by manipulating their attention and directing it towards their own commercial purposes” and “deliberately engineer addiction to the services they provide”. The latter, he said, “can be very harmful, particularly for adolescents”.
- - Olivia Solon, George Soros: Facebook and Google a menace to society, The Guardian, 26 Jan 2018 [for full transcript, see Remarks delivered at the World Economic Forum]
- The company says it uses artificial intelligence technology to figure out what users like, then makes sure they are fed more and more of it. ...
- “It’s like having a chef in your house who knows what kind of food you like,” said Xu Qinglu, a 22-year-old student and Toutiao user in Beijing.
- “I think the app is not harmful,” she added. “The people who use it should be responsible for their own behavior.” ...
- Bytedance’s detractors say that salty, unwholesome material — the sort that has the Chinese government on edge these days — is exactly what the company’s apps have specialized in, and is a major reason for its popularity. ...
- Even Bytedance’s news app, Toutiao, featured plenty of edgy material that kept users coming back, sometimes reluctantly, for more. Xiao Lin, a 29-year-old programmer in Beijing, called the app “spiritual opium.”
- “On a typical night, I would keep clicking on news items the app recommended to me while telling myself, ‘After this, I will sleep,’ ” Mr. Xiao said. “But I ended up reading more and more, for hours. I couldn’t stop.”
- - RAYMOND ZHONG, It Built an Empire of GIFs, Buzzy News and Jokes. China Isn’t Amused., NYT, APRIL 11, 2018
- Mr. Chaslot worked on the recommender algorithm while at YouTube. He grew alarmed at the tactics used to increase the time people spent on the site. ...
- What we are witnessing is the computational exploitation of a natural human desire: to look “behind the curtain,” to dig deeper into something that engages us. As we click and click, we are carried along by the exciting sensation of uncovering more secrets and deeper truths. YouTube leads viewers down a rabbit hole of extremism, while Google racks up the ad sales.
- Human beings have many natural tendencies that need to be vigilantly monitored in the context of modern life. For example, our craving for fat, salt and sugar, which served us well when food was scarce, can lead us astray in an environment in which fat, salt and sugar are all too plentiful and heavily marketed to us. So too our natural curiosity about the unknown can lead us astray on a website that leads us too much in the direction of lies, hoaxes and misinformation.
- In effect, YouTube has created a restaurant that serves us increasingly sugary, fatty foods, loading up our plates as soon as we are finished with the last meal. Over time, our tastes adjust, and we seek even more sugary, fatty foods, which the restaurant dutifully provides. When confronted about this by the health department and concerned citizens, the restaurant managers reply that they are merely serving us what we want.
- This situation is especially dangerous given how many people — especially young people — turn to YouTube for information.
- - Zeynep Tufekci, YouTube, the Great Radicalizer, March 10, 2018
- Almost 100 people are dying every day across America from opioid overdoses – more than car crashes and shootings combined. The majority of these fatalities reveal widespread addiction to powerful prescription painkillers. The crisis unfolded in the mid-90s when the US pharmaceutical industry began marketing legal narcotics, particularly OxyContin, to treat everyday pain. This slow-release opioid was vigorously promoted to doctors and, amid lax regulation and slick sales tactics, people were assured it was safe. But the drug was akin to luxury morphine, doled out like super aspirin, and highly addictive. What resulted was a commercial triumph and a public health tragedy. Belated efforts to rein in distribution fueled a resurgence of heroin and the emergence of a deadly, black market version of the synthetic opioid fentanyl.
- - Sarah Boseley, Why is there an opioid crisis in America?, the Guardian, 13 Feb 2018
- Video games work hard to hook players. Designers use predictive algorithms and principles of behavioral economics to keep fans engaged. When new games are reviewed, the most flattering accolade might be “I can’t put it down.”
- Now, the World Health Organization is saying players can actually become addicted.
- On Monday, “gaming disorder” will appear in a new draft of the organization’s International Classification of Diseases, the highly regarded compendium of medical conditions. ...
- Now, mental health professionals say they increasingly see players who have lost control.
- “I have patients who come in suffering from an addiction to Candy Crush Saga, and they’re substantially similar to people who come in with a cocaine disorder,” Dr. Levounis said. “Their lives are ruined, their interpersonal relationships suffer, their physical condition suffers.”
- - Tiffany Hsu, Video Game Addiction Tries to Move From Basement to Doctor’s Office, NYT, June 17, 2018
- Playing video games is not addictive in any meaningful sense. It is normal behavior that, while perhaps in many cases a waste of time, is not damaging or disruptive of lives in the way drug or alcohol use can be.
- - Christopher J. Ferguson and Patrick Markey, Video Games Aren’t Addictive, NYT, April 1, 2017
- The opioid epidemic didn’t have to happen. It was a human-made disaster, predictable and tremendously lucrative. At every stage, powerful figures permitted its progress, waving off warnings from people like Van Zee, participating in what would become, in essence, a for-profit slaughter. Or as Macy puts it: “From a distance of almost two decades, it was easier now to see that we had invited into our country our own demise.”
- Particularly grotesque is the enthusiasm with which Purdue peddled its pills. In the first five years OxyContin was on the market, total bonuses for the company’s sales staff grew from $1 million to $40 million. Zealous reps could earn quarterly bonuses as high as $100,000, one former salesperson told Macy, adding, “It behooved them to have the pill mills writing high doses.” Doctors were plied with all-expense-paid resort trips, free tanks of gas and deliveries of Christmas trees and Thanksgiving turkeys. There were even “starter coupons” offering new patients a free 30-day supply.
- - Jessica Bruder, The Worst Drug Crisis in American History, NYT, July 31, 2018
- Schools across the country are grappling with teenage e-cigarette use, to the point that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) declared last month that it has reached "an epidemic proportion": more than 2 million middle and high school students were regular users of e-cigarettes last year. E-cigarette use skyrocketed between 2011 to 2017, going from 1.5 percent to 11.7 percent among high school students and from 0.6 percent to 3.3 percent among middle school students, according to the FDA.
- The FDA told the companies that make some of the most popular devices — including Juul, co-founded by two Stanford University graduate students — that they had 60 days to prove they can keep the products away from minors. Federal law prohibits selling e-cigarettes to anyone under 18. Juul is meant for adult smokers and requires customers to be 21 years or older to purchase products online, but the company has faced sharp criticism for targeting teenagers, particularly through the marketing of flavors like mango and mint.
- - Elena Kadvany, High schools confront vaping 'epidemic', Palo Alto Weekly, Oct 5, 2018
- This January, Gov. Tom Wolf signed a statewide disaster declaration, the first of its kind for a public-health emergency in Pennsylvania. There had been more than 1,200 overdose deaths in Philadelphia in 2017 — a 34 percent rise from 2016. Wolf pushed the state to roll back regulations that might be stopping users from getting help, like ID and sobriety requirements for shelters and treatment facilities. ... It sent a van into the neighborhood to offer recovery services. It gave residents blue light bulbs for their porches, because the light seemed to make it harder for heroin users to find a vein.
- - Jennifer Percy, Trapped by the ‘Walmart of Heroin’, NYT, Oct. 10, 2018
- We think of any danger as coming from misuse — scammers, hackers, state-sponsored misinformation — but we’re starting to understand the risks that come from these platforms working exactly as designed. Facebook, YouTube and others use algorithms to identify and promote content that will keep us engaged, which turns out to amplify some of our worst impulses. ...
- Whether they set out to or not, these companies are conducting the largest social re-engineering experiment in human history, and no one has the slightest clue what the consequences are. ...
- It’s not that I fear some devastating privacy breach or misuse of my data. Rather, these platforms are incredibly sophisticated at learning our habits and keeping us engaged in ways that are not necessarily healthy for us or our communities. Most days, it’s unhealthy only on the scale of a candy bar or secondhand smoke, but who needs it? ...
- To give social media some credit, some of my favorite serialized entertainment of any kind is the Twitter feed of Nicole Cliffe, a writer for various publications, which could exist and feel so personal only on a platform like Twitter.
- - Max Fisher, Social Media’s Re-engineering Effect, From Myanmar to Germany, NYT, Nov. 7, 2018
- The opioid epidemic didn’t have to happen. It was a human-made disaster, predictable and tremendously lucrative. ...
- Particularly grotesque is the enthusiasm with which Purdue peddled its pills. ... Doctors were plied with all-expense-paid resort trips.... There were even “starter coupons” offering new patients a free 30-day supply.''
- - Jessica Bruder, The Worst Drug Crisis in American History, NYT, July 31, 2018