Fake News

As the campaign progressed, criticism of Mr. Trump was instantly projected back at his opponent, or at the critics themselves. “No puppet. No puppet. You’re the puppet.”

This tactic was used on the language of social justice, which was appropriated by opponents and redeployed nihilistically, in an open effort to sap its power while simultaneously taking advantage of what power it retained. Anti-racists were cast as the real racists. Progressives were cast as secretly regressive on their own terms. This was not a new tactic, but it was newly effective. It didn’t matter that its targets knew that it was a bad-faith maneuver, a clear bid for power rather than an attempt to engage or reason.

- John Herrman, Fixation on Fake News Overshadows Waning Trust in Real Reporting, NYT, Nov. 18, 2016

Friday night, the Facebook co-founder Mark Zuckerberg went on his vast social network to convince an expanding chorus of critics — including the departing president of the United States — that he honest-to-goodness wants to combat the “fake news” that is running wild across his site and others, and turning our politics into a paranoiac fantasy come to life. ...
The national security adviser Mr. Trump named last week, Michael T. Flynn, ... recently used Twitter to circulate a fake news item that the Federal Bureau of Investigation was sitting on evidence from Anthony Weiner’s laptop that would “put Hillary and her crew away for life.” ...
Add to that the fact that Mr. Trump was the most prominent promoter of the false notion that President Obama wasn’t born here, and didn’t hesitate to repeat the outrageous suggestion that the father of Senator Ted Cruz was linked to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. ...
President Obama... told reporters in Germany on Thursday, “If we are not serious about facts and what’s true and what’s not,” and “if we can’t discriminate between serious arguments and propaganda, then we have problems.” ...
Today’s fake news is limited only by the imaginations of its inventors and the number of shares it can garner on Facebook or Twitter.

(To wit: The one million shares of the preposterous notion that Mrs. Clinton secretly sold weapons to ISIS. BuzzFeed News — which has excelled at illuminating the fake news problem — highlighted that example in its alarming analysis showing that during the campaign cycle fake news was shared among Facebook users more often than real news was.)
- Jim Rutenberg, Mark Zuckerberg and Facebook Must Defend the Truth, NYT, Nov. 20, 2016

But under its glittering surface, Dallas has a problem that could bring it to its knees....
What is happening in Dallas is an extreme example of what’s happening in many other places around the country. Elected officials promised workers solid pensions years ago, on the basis of wishful thinking rather than realistic expectations. Dallas’s troubles have become more urgent because its plan rules let some retirees take big withdrawals. ...
To many in Dallas, the hole in the pension fund seems to have blown open overnight. But in fact, the fuse was lit back in 1993, when state lawmakers sweetened police and firefighter pensions beyond the wildest dreams of the typical Dallas resident. ...
Guaranteed 8.5 percent interest, on tap indefinitely for thousands of people, would of course cost a fortune. But state lawmakers made it look “cost neutral,” records show, by fixing Dallas's annual pension contributions at 36 percent of the police and firefighters’ payroll. It would all work as long as the payroll grew by 5 percent every year — which it did not — and if the pension fund earned 9 percent annually on its investments. ...
“We all know some of the benefits, guaranteed, were just probably never realistic,” he [State Senator John Whitmire] said.
- Mary Walsh, Dallas Stares Down a Texas-Size Threat of Bankruptcy, NYT, Nov. 20, 2016

If his pro-Clinton site had taken off, he said, he would have pressed on with that, but “people did not engage,” so he focused on serving pro-Trump supporters instead. They, he quickly realized, were a far more receptive audience “because they are angry” and eager to read outrageous tales.

“For me, this is all about income, nothing more,” he added.

The income comes mostly from Google, which pays a few cents each time a reader sees or clicks on advertisements embedded in one of Mr. Latsabidze’s websites. His best month, which coincided with the hit bogus story about Mexico closing the border, brought in around $6,000, though monthly revenue is usually much lower.
- Andrew Higgins, Mike McIntire, and Gabriel Dance, Inside a Fake News Sausage Factory: ‘This Is All About Income’, Nov. 25, 2016

A recent study [Ipsos/BuzzFeed Poll - Fake News] found that most people who read fabricated stories on Facebook — such as a widely circulated hoax about Pope Francis endorsing Mr. Trump — were inclined to believe them.
- Mike McIntire, How a Putin Fan Overseas Pushed Pro-Trump Propaganda to Americans, NYT, Dec. 17, 2016
- Ipsos/BuzzFeed Poll - Fake News, Ipsos, Dec. 6, 2016

In fact, kompromat is more than an individual piece of damaging information: It is a broader attempt to manufacture public cynicism and confusion in ways that target not just one individual but an entire society. ...

Specific leaks may take aim at powerful individuals, but in the longer term, kompromat serves the interests of the powerful, which is why it is often a tool of autocrats. By eroding the very idea of a shared reality, and by spreading apathy and confusion among a public that learns to distrust leaders and institutions alike, kompromat undermines a society’s ability to hold the powerful to account and ensure the proper functioning of government.
- Amanda Taub, ‘Kompromat’ and the Danger of Doubt and Confusion in a Democracy, NYT, Jan. 15, 2017

It was early fall, and Donald J. Trump, behind in the polls, seemed to be preparing a rationale in case a winner like him somehow managed to lose. “I’m afraid the election is going to be rigged, I have to be honest,” the Republican nominee told a riled-up crowd in Columbus, Ohio. He was hearing “more and more” about evidence of rigging, he added, leaving the details to his supporters’ imagination.

A few weeks later, Cameron Harris, a new college graduate with a fervent interest in Maryland Republican politics and a need for cash, sat down at the kitchen table in his apartment to fill in the details Mr. Trump had left out. In a dubious art just coming into its prime, this bogus story would be his masterpiece.

Mr. Harris started by crafting the headline: “BREAKING: ‘Tens of thousands’ of fraudulent Clinton votes found in Ohio warehouse.” It made sense, he figured, to locate this shocking discovery in the very city and state where Mr. Trump had highlighted his “rigged” meme.

“I had a theory when I sat down to write it,” recalled Mr. Harris, a 23-year-old former college quarterback and fraternity leader. “Given the severe distrust of the media among Trump supporters, anything that parroted Trump’s talking points people would click.
- SCOTT SHANE, From Headline to Photograph, a Fake News Masterpiece, NYT, JAN. 18, 2017

President Trump, reading his news conference presentation:

I’m making this presentation directly to the American people, with the media present, which is an honor to have you. This morning, because many of our nation’s reporters and folks will not tell you the truth, and will not treat the wonderful people of our country with the respect that they deserve. And I hope going forward we can be a little bit — a little bit different, and maybe get along a little bit better, if that’s possible. Maybe it’s not, and that’s OK, too.
Unfortunately, much of the media in Washington, D.C., along with New York, Los Angeles in particular, speaks not for the people, but for the special interests and for those profiting off a very, very obviously broken system. The press has become so dishonest that if we don’t talk about, we are doing a tremendous disservice to the American people. Tremendous disservice. We have to talk to find out what’s going on, because the press honestly is out of control. The level of dishonesty is out of control.
'I ran for president to present the citizens of our country. I am here to change the broken system so it serves their families and their communities well. I am talking — and really talking on this very entrenched power structure, and what we’re doing is we’re talking about the power structure; we’re talking about its entrenchment. As a result, the media is going through what they have to go through too often times distort - not all the time - and some of the media is fantastic, I have to say - they’re honest and fantastic.''

But much of it is not a - the distortion — and we’ll talk about it, you’ll be able to ask me questions about it. But we’re not going to let it happen, because I’m here again, to take my message straight to the people. As you know, our administration inherited many problems across government and across the economy. To be honest, I inherited a mess. It’s a mess. At home and abroad, a mess. Jobs are pouring out of the country; you see what’s going on with all of the companies leaving our country, going to Mexico and other places, low pay, low wages, mass instability overseas, no matter where you look. The middle east is a disaster. North Korea - we’ll take care of it folks; we’re going to take care of it all. I just want to let you know, I inherited a mess.

Beginning on day one, our administration went to work to tackle these challenges. On foreign affairs, we’ve already begun enormously productive talks with many foreign leaders, much of it you’ve covered, to move forward towards stability, security and peace in the most troubled regions of the world, which there are many. We have had great conversations with the United Kingdom, and meetings. Israel, Mexico, Japan, China and Canada, really, really productive conversations. I would say far more productive than you would understand.
- Donald Trump, Feb. 16, 2017 News Conference (after 39:09)

With little regard for the truth — he was previously fired by The Times of London for making up a quote — Mr. Johnson wrote about a Europe scheming to impose standard condom sizes and ban his country’s beloved prawn-cocktail-flavored chips (both untrue).

“Boris invented fake news,” said Martin Fletcher, a former foreign editor of The Times, who was in Brussels shortly after Mr. Johnson. ...
The campaign was marked by a relentless drip of anti-immigration rhetoric and a couple of big lies that stuck: the 350 million pounds (about $450 million at current rates) that Britain paid to the European Union every week (false) and the prospect of millions of Turks’ making their way to Britain if it stayed in the union (Turkey is not joining the bloc). Two years ago, the United Nations urged Britain to deal with hate speech in its newspapers, specifically citing a column in The Sun that compared migrants to cockroaches and the norovirus.

The tabloids say they merely reflect the concerns and fears of their readers.

- KATRIN BENNHOLD, To Understand ‘Brexit,’ Look to Britain’s Tabloids, NYT, MAY 2, 2017

Colonel Huber and his soldiers have been the subjects of two recent cyberattacks: false claims of wrongdoing that officials believe were put in circulation by an increasingly aggressive Russian intelligence operation that is meant to sow doubts and resentment of NATO’s growing presence in the Baltics.

The first attack came on Feb. 14. Emails sent to the president of the Lithuanian Parliament and various local news media outlets falsely claimed that German soldiers had raped a girl. The story rippled through the country before the police determined that it was untrue.

A few weeks later, another series of emails circulated with what seemed to be photos of Colonel Huber among a group of Russian partisans. The photos were faked.

Then, in early April, came a phony story about a supposed chemical assault on American troops in nearby Estonia, which appeared mysteriously on a popular Lithuanian news site.
- GARDINER HARRIS, Jim Mattis, in Lithuania, Reaffirms U.S. Commitment to NATO, NYT, MAY 10, 2017

With its huge reach, Facebook has begun to act as the great disseminator of the larger cloud of misinformation and half-truths swirling about the rest of media. It sucks up lies from cable news and Twitter, then precisely targets each lie to the partisan bubble most receptive to it. ...
A week and a half after the election, President Obama bemoaned “an age where there’s so much active misinformation and it’s packaged very well and it looks the same when you see it on a Facebook page or you turn on your television.” ...
Scholars and critics have been warning of the solipsistic irresistibility of algorithmic news at least since 2001.... ... In 2008, I piled on with my own book, “True Enough: Learning to Live in a Post-Fact Society.”
- FARHAD MANJOO, Can Facebook Fix Its Own Worst Bug?, NYT, APRIL 25, 2017

Mr. Trump’s broadside was his latest attempt to discredit the news media as biased against him, an effort that has accelerated after several recent mistakes by news organizations and individual journalists.

Brian Ross, the chief investigative correspondent for ABC News, was suspended this month for four weeks without pay after incorrectly reporting that Michael T. Flynn, the former national security adviser, would testify that Mr. Trump had directed him to make contact with Russian officials while Mr. Trump was still a candidate. ...
Also on Friday, CNN corrected an erroneous report that Donald Trump Jr. had received advance notice from the anti-secrecy group WikiLeaks about a trove of hacked documents that it planned to release during last year’s presidential campaign. ...
On Saturday morning, before the posts about Mr. Weigel and the rally photo, President Trump pounced on the CNN correction, tweeting, “Fake News CNN made a vicious and purposeful mistake yesterday.” ...
After taking office in January, he accused journalists of deliberately understating the size of the crowd at his inauguration and said that up to 1.5 million people were in attendance, a claim that photographs disproved.
- ZACH JOHNK, Trump Wants Washington Post Reporter Fired Over Misleading Tweet, NYT, DEC. 10, 2017

Some New York Times corrections:

The Sunday Routine column last Sunday, about Mashonda Tifrere, incorrectly stated that Ms. Tifrere shops at the Union Square Greenmarket on Sundays. She visits the market on Saturdays, not Sundays. (The market is open Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Saturday.)
- Corrections: December 10, 2017, NYT, DEC. 9, 2017

An article on Monday about Nikki R. Haley’s comments that women who have accused President Trump of sexual misconduct “should be heard” misstated the year in which Juliet Huddy, a former Fox News anchor, said that Mr. Trump kissed her on the lips in an elevator. Ms. Huddy said the incident occurred in 2005 or 2006, not in 2011.
An article on Sunday about differences in the way similar workers are taxed under the new House and Senate tax plans misidentified a tax-reduction move made in 2003 under President George W. Bush. It was the tax rate on dividends, like long-term capital gains, that was lowered, not the rate on short-term capital gains.
An article on Sunday about President Trump’s speech at the opening of the Mississippi Civil Rights Museum described incorrectly the murder of Emmett Till, a 14-year-old African-American boy who was killed in 1955. He was killed by two men, not a white mob.
An article on Saturday about the firefighters managing widespread wildfires in California misstated the number of fire departments in the state. There are 1,100, not 11,000.
An article on Dec. 2 about economic development in historically poorer and isolated regions of China misspelled the given name of a deputy researcher at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. He is Hu Bingchuan, not Binchuan.
An article on Monday about the growing popularity of fly fishing among women misstated the river that the St. Johns Bridge spans. It is the Willamette, not the Columbia.
- Corrections: December 12, 2017, NYT, DEC. 11, 2017

Inaccuracy in the Times:

Then, as members of the delegation stared into their orange juice, Mr. Trump told them that Germany was a “captive” of Russia because it receives 9 percent of its natural gas from the country — though Mr. Trump erroneously said it was 70 percent.
- Elizabeth Williamson and Thomas Kaplan, As President Trump Bashes NATO, Republicans Are Largely Silent, NYT, July 11, 2018 (on July 12, 2018) [As of July 12, 2018, the online version says at the bottom: "A version of this article appears in print on July 11, 2018, on Page A9 of the New York edition with the headline: Republicans Quiet After President’s Outburst." The article with that headline (and with the "9 percent of its natural gas" error) appears in the July 12, 2018 National edition on p. A9. It seems unlikely it appeared a day earlier in the New York edition.]

Mr. Trump said Germany “will be getting 60 to 70 percent of their energy from Russia.”

In fact, that’s the total amount of its energy needs that Germany gets from any foreign source, and even its gas market is highly diversified. Most of the rest of the gas it imports comes from the Netherlands and Norway.
- Palko Karasz, Germany Imports Gas From Russia. But Is It a ‘Captive’?, NYT, July 11, 2018 (on July 12, 2018)

The Germans argue that they have been diversifying their gas supplies, that they now get only about 9 percent of their energy from Russia — not the 70 percent that Mr. Trump claimed — and that Washington is angling to sell liquid natural gas to Germany instead.
- Steven Erlanger and Julie Hirschfeld Davis, Trump vs. Merkel: Blistering Salvo Meets Quiet Rejoinder, NYT, July 11, 2018 (on July 12, 2018)

More inaccuracy in the Times:

Yet, Europe faces a dilemma with Mr. Trump, as Sigmar Gabriel, the former German foreign minister, said in an interview with Der Spiegel. “The truth is, we can’t get along with Trump and we can’t get along without the U.S.,” Mr. Gabriel said. “We therefore need a dual strategy: clear, hard and, above all, common European answers to Trump. Any attempt to accommodate him, any appraisal only leads him to go a step further. This must be over. From trade to NATO.”
- Steven Erlanger, Amid the Trumpian Chaos, Europe Sees a Strategy: Divide and Conquer, NYT, July 13, 2018

It is unlikely Gabriel actually said "any appraisal only leads him to go a step further." Since Gabriel is German and was being interviewed by a German publication, he presumably said something in German, and readers who think about it are apt to realize he said something in German rather than the English words the Times reports he said. Such inaccuracy is generally considered acceptable, provided the translation provided is correct. But given that there is no reason to think an appraisal would lead Trump to go further, it is implausible that Gabriel made such an inane comment. What he actually said in German was apparently:

Die Wahrheit sei: „Wir können nicht mit Trump und nicht ohne die USA. Wir brauchen deshalb eine Doppelstrategie: klare, harte und vor allem gemeinsame europäische;: Antworten an Trump. Jeder Versuch, ihm entgegen zu kommen, jede Anbiederung führt nur dazu, dass er noch einen Schritt weiter geht. Damit muss Schluss sein.“
- Trump strebt laut Gabriel „Regimewechsel“ in Deutschland an, Handelsblatt, 13.07.2018

'Anbiederung', the word translated as 'appraisal', does not mean appraisal. Google Translate says it means pandering, currying favor, or ingratiation. World of Dictionary translates it as "making friends, becoming friendly with, connecting with, allying oneself with". That pandering or currying favor would lead Trump to go further makes sense, so that is presumably what Gabriel meant. Thus it is false that Gabriel said any appraisal leads Trump to go a step further, and one is left wondering how much of the rest of what one reads in the Times is untrue.

Though it is far from free of significant errors, the Times says it considers accuracy of great importance:

Our commitment to corrections is a critical piece of the scaffolding that supports The Times’s core mission — to deliver the highest-quality journalism possible and tell our audiences the complete, unvarnished truth as best we can learn it. Our style guide puts it this way: “Because its voice is loud and far-reaching, The Times recognizes an ethical responsibility to correct all its factual errors, large and small (even misspellings of names), promptly and in a prominent reserved space in the paper.” ...
It’s more than annoying to have a piece that took months of reporting and writing and polishing blotted with a correction for a “2003” that should have been “2004.” But I agree with what Clark Hoyt wrote in 2007, when he was the paper’s public editor: “A great newspaper has to get the big things right, but it also has to pay fanatical attention to thousands of details every day to prevent the kinds of mistakes that start readers wondering, ‘If they can’t spell his name right, what else is wrong with the story?’”
- Rogene Jacquette, We Stand Corrected: How The Times Handles Errors, NYT, June 7, 2018

“At one point, he started to attack the press,” Stahl said. “There were no cameras in there.”

“I said, ‘You know, this is getting tired. Why are you doing it over and over? It’s boring and it’s time to end that. You know, you’ve won ... why do you keep hammering at this?’” Stahl recalled.

“And he said: ‘You know why I do it? I do it to discredit you all and demean you all so that when you write negative stories about me no one will believe you.’”
- Dan Mangan, President Trump told Lesley Stahl he bashes press ‘to demean you and discredit you so ... no one will believe’ negative stories about him, CNBC, MAY 22 2018, UPDATED OCT 29 2018

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