Environment vs. Heredity

But it’s also unclear how much of children’s success is actually determined by parenting.

“It’s still an open question whether it’s the parenting practices themselves that are making the difference, or is it simply growing up with college-educated parents in an environment that’s richer in many dimensions?” said Liana Sayer, a sociologist at the University of Maryland and director of the Time Use Laboratory there. “I don’t think any of these studies so far have been able to answer whether these kids would be doing well as adults regardless, simply because of resources.” ...
Psychologists and others have raised alarms about children’s high levels of stress and dependence on their parents, and the need to develop independence, self-reliance and grit. Research has shown that children with hyper-involved parents have more anxiety and less satisfaction with life, and that when children play unsupervised, they build social skills, emotional maturity and executive function.
- Claire Cain Miller, The Relentlessness of Modern Parenting, NYT, Dec. 25, 2018

Violence springs from what boys learn about what it means to be a man. ...
Boys don’t come into the world with some inborn tendency toward domination or violence. As the Stanford psychologist Albert Bandura explained: “People are not born with preformed repertoires of aggressive behavior. They must learn them.” The problem is rooted in boys’ socialization, which is characterized by physical discipline, control and disdain for weakness.
- Michael C. Reichert ["Dr. Reichert is a psychologist."], It’s Dangerous to Be a Boy: They smoke more, fight more and are far more likely to die young than girls. But their tendency to violence isn’t innate., NYT, March 30, 2019

... I still take heart from knowing that so much of our political behavior is cued by biology. It reminds me that this terrible political age is not unique. The republic has survived profound divisions in the past, and it can survive the immense political chasms of our own time, too.
- Margaret Renkl, Fear and Loathing in the Parking Lot, NYT, Aug. 12, 2019

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